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2000’li Yıllar Öncesi ve Sonrasında Türk Sineması’nda Kullanılan Yapım Kaynaklarının Değerlendirilmesi

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Author(s): Eylem ARSLAN

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 25;
Start page: 17;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Turkish Cinema | production resources | the Region Management | distribution channels | Culture and Tourism

ABSTRACT
Motion picture industry is formed by the integration of production, distribution and exhibition processes. It is important forindustrialization of cinema to put each proccess into a form to support each other. Thus American Cinema Industry is the mostpowerful industry of the world. Because in the American Cinema Industry production, distribution and exhibition is completelyintegrated with each other. Each proccess includes actions which need to act efficiently. So the stability needed for industrialdevelopment can be reached in American Cinema Industry. For this reason the companies tried to make distribution andexhibition proccesses work efficiently by producing enough number of films yearly in USA.In the Turkish Cinema market, the integration of production, distribution and exhibition proccesses is not enough for theindustrial development of the market. Altough this integration was provided by Regional Administration, nowadays thisintegration is not possible. Also in the term of Regional Administration, the practices for the production, distribution andexhibition was performed by the same companies. In this period the structure of Turkish Cinema was similar to American systemwhich was called vertical structure. As a result of this structure the same companies produced, exported and distributed themovies and also they managed to the movie theaters. Because of the integration, in this period producers had no financialproblem about filming. Nowadays one of the biggest problem of the Turkish Cinema is the financial problems about filming (theproduction process). Because of this problem the number of production of movies is not enough to develop the industry.The resources used in the production process of Turkish Cinema has changed by social and economical development. Andalso changes on the distribution and exhibition process effect financial resources used in the production process. In the context ofthis study we aim to reach which resources used in the different period of Turkish Cinema and how these resources effect the film market generally. In other words, determining the quality and quantity of the financial resources used in the productionprocess and getting information about their effects in the Turkish Cinema is the aim of this study. As a result of the studyfinancial resources were evaluated under the different titles. According to the study the activities between 1915–1922 concerningproduction process were performed by government (army). In 1922 Kemal Film was opened as the first private productioncompany of Turkish Cinema. Between 1922-1949 production activities were performed by private production companies (Özön,1995: 19-21). In 1948 legal regulations were made to improve the box office gross which was the most important financialresource for producers. By this regulation the share which was taken by government was reduced to 25 % (Scognamillo, 1998:111).In 1960s Turkish Cinema passed to the Regional Management and according to this system Turkey was divided into theregions such as Izmir, Ankara, Samsun, İstanbul (Abisel, 1994: 102). In this regions, theater owners were active firstly indistribution and exhibition process and than in production process by paying advance to producers.In 1970s producers who searched financial resources for producing movies changed their target audience and started toproduce sex comedies (Esen, 2000: 35). In 1980s producers aimed to be able to produce with less money and work. For thatpurpose, arabespue and singer movies were filmed in this period. The most important development for this period occured inhome video market. Because of audience interest, video administrators started to support producers financially. Thus, producersjust filmed for home video market.As a result of legal regulation in 1986, government allowed foreign distribution companies to perform in Turkey. Accordingto the regulation, Warner Bros. Türkiye attempted to home video market in 1987 and distribution market in 1989 (Kaya, 2009:11). In the same year, United International Pictures entered to distribution market, too. Thus American movies were distributedto Turkish movie market first hand. In this period, moviegoers interested in American movies much more than Turkish moviesso theater owners especially prefered to show American movies. Because of theater owner’s attitude, producers had some seriousfinancial problems about filming so they filmed less movies in this period. In 1990 Culture and Tourism Ministry started tosupport producers financially for their movie projects. And also Turkey participated to Eurimages via Culture and TourismMinistry in 1990. After this participation, Eurimages have supported producers financially and gave a chance to meet foreignpartners for co-productions.During 90s, financial problems about producing continued. In 2000s, producers started to use different channels for solvingthis problem. In this period, the most important resource used by producers except their own capital was box office revenues.Because of the less number of movigoers the box office revenues were effected by this situation. Producers got less income fromtelevision and home video as distribution channels. Growing number of pirate CD-Rs and DVD-Rs and online piracy hasdepressed ticket sales in Turkey for last ten years. Especially online piracy is apparently becoming a priority to Turkish Cinemalike European countries or Hollywood as the transferring of large digital files becomes less time-consuming and the quality ofviewing improves. By this way because of online piracy, internet is not an effective distribution channel for producers in Turkey.And also merchandising is not used effectively by producers as a distribution channel because of a lot of piracy merchandisingactivities in Turkey.Second most important financial resource after distribution channels such as theathers, television etc. is Culture and TourismMinistry’s support. But the amount of the payment has just form the small part of production budget. And also there are somedebates about the criterias used in selection about which movie project to be supported.After 2005, distribution companies started to support producers by giving advances. This practise is a new resource forproducers in Turkish Cinema. According to this system, distribution companies support the movie projects which they areinterested in at the begining of the process. After the movie plays on the theater screens across the country, producers pay theadvance back to distribution companies (T. Akıncı ile kişisel iletişim, 07 Nisan 2009). This practise is very important for obtainingthe integration of production, distribution and exhibition in Turkish Cinema.Product placement is another financial resource used by producers in Turkish Cinema. It’s not applied effectively but in thefuture it can be a useful resource for producers. Consequently, financial resources used in production process in Turkish Cinemaare not enough to complete a film project alone. But the number of movies is very important for the industurial development ofTurkish Cinema. In other words less production financially will jeopardize the market’s industurial development. Therefore formarket’s industrurial development goverment should increase financial support and also take anti-Piracy actions to combat piracy.By this way producers can increase their revenues and also find financial resources easily for filming and finally they can producemore movies towards different target audiences. At the end of this process, growing number of movies would be able tostrengthen Turkish Cinema’s production as much as distribution and exhibition processes
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