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21. Yüzyılda Öğretmen Yetiştirme Eğitim Programının Boyutları

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Author(s): Ömer Faruk TUTKUN | Yasemin AKSOYALP

Journal: Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi
ISSN 1302-1796

Issue: 24;
Start page: 362;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Teacher | Teacher Education | Teacher Training | Curricula | Curriculum Development

ABSTRACT
Teacher training continued as having rigid boundaries and stages in the 19th century. At the same time,teaching was regarded as a low-status profession. Teachers were trained within their profession andschools in this period. This type of training was carried out with trainee teachers working in primaryschools. The aim was to train teachers as modest, earnest, observant of customs, obedient to moral normsand unquestioning individuals. However, it was realized that teachers having intended qualifications couldnot be trained by means of these methods. New emerging demands in 1980s caused a consensus on a setof tenets about what type of issues should be placed in teacher training programs. In this framework, newunderstanding aroused that teachers should be equipped with the knowledge of child development,learning theories and teaching methods, sociology and psychology and has competencies in subject matterknowledge and teaching methods. Besides these, the dimension of social justice and reconstruction ofsociety was added to the conventional role of teachers in 1980s. It was understood that if it was aimed toobtain success in educational reforms and development of schools, at the same time, it was necessary toimprove pre-service and in-service teacher training in 1990s. Teacher training was based on the cooperation model between higher education and schools in 2000s. In this period, the fundamentalconcept which came into prominence was concerned with teachers who had these features: possesscomprehensive knowledge and competent in implementation, questioning, visionary, has the ability todigress from ordinary rules in the classroom and providing students with the freedom of saying theiropinions. (Dillon and Maguire,1998: 30-36).In the 21st century, however, the understanding which stresses the fact that teachers should beinvolved in tasks such as educational reforms, renovation, and development and be part of these processesbecame prominent. In today’s perception is shifted towards the view that rather than taking andimplementing the content, curriculum and methods as they are, teachers are expected to form everysituation related to their own materials, methods, in-class activities and instruction (Nunan, 2004: 133).Towards the end of the 20st century, all developed, developing and underdeveloped countries were insearch of finding different and effective ways to prepare their citizens for the life in the 21st century bytraining their citizens and obtain success in education at both international and local levels. In this context,four dimensions about redesigning and modernizing educational content come to forefront: 1- Learningfor knowledge. 2- Learning for doing/performing. 3- Learning for existing. 4- Learning to live together.The most critical dimension is “learning to live together”. Learning to live together is the prerequisite forachieving the other three factors. The tenets which define these dimensions are 1- Constructing awarenessfor citizenship. 2- Make disadvantaged groups advantageous. For this reason, teachers’ participation intoevery kind of educational reform applications maintained and it is necessary to train teachers as competentin the 21st century understanding and tendencies. From this aspect, it obvious that there is a need for allcountries to renewing, modernizing and altering their teacher training program in accordance with thedemands of the 21st century.Factors such as disappearance of personal, social and geographical boundaries, contemporaryunderstandings and the necessity of implementing these resulted in multidimensional and multiculturalperception of citizenship. This new understanding as well as tendencies renders renewing teacher trainingand in-service training programs compulsory. Characteristic of the 21st century society is to have aphilosophy of life which is differentiating in terms of culture and perception and gradually globalizing.Values and issues such as increasing diversity in culture and language, international dialogue, having accessto information instantly, socio-economic inequality and inability of wide range of people to benefit fromdemocratic rights are becoming eminent in the 21st century. In this context, since teachers are the firstgroup that changes influence, it is essential to prepare teachers for the 2st century and its requirements.Qualified teacher training is fundamental in maintaining teacher participation effectively and voluntarily inreform movements to be held in education. Teacher is the most essential and significant component ofevery kind of renovation to be made in education. Teachers should have active participation in every typeof educational reforms. In this framework, the study is based on two problems. One is to put forward thequalifications of the 21st century teacher in accordance with features of the 21st century society and newforemost understandings and issues. The second, in this context of new understandings and issues, it istried to determine dimensions of teacher training programs in the 21st century.Research is a theoretical study. Compilation method was utilized in this study. Data were obtained bymeans of studies about the research problem in related literature and conducted within the last ten years.Then, collected data were analyzed based on research problems. On the basis of these analyses, tendencyand issues, new concepts required to form the basis of pre- and in-service training of teachers and tenetsand understandings about teachers in the 21st century were inferred.The study gave way to the following results: 1- Teacher training programs should be conducted on aninternational basis. 2- The 21st century teacher should be trained as having multicultural understanding andcompetency. 3- Teachers should be trained with the perception of building a cross-cultural education anddemocratic society. 4- Vital component of societal development and change, the teacher should be trainedas a human who is responsive to all problems around him/her, generate solutions and has a standpoint. 5-The perception that teachers act according to pre-determined rules in teaching processes is replaced by theunderstanding that today teachers carry out teaching by relating it to other fields which they find relevant.6- Teachers should be trained in multiple dimensions like an actor and take appropriate positions in
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