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5. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of the root and rhizome of Corallocarpus epigaeus

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Author(s): C. Nisha Shri | J. Balaji | S. Venkatramanan | K.L. Madhumathi

Journal: International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research (IJPBR)
ISSN 0976-0350

Volume: 01;
Issue: 01;
Start page: 24;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: Corallocarpus epigaeus | Macroscopical studies | Phytochemical screening | Simple and compound starch grains

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study is to cover the pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Corallocarpus epigaeus. The root and rhizome of Corallocarpus epigaeus belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae is a widely grown plant throughout India. The plant has many valuable medicinal properties. The plant was collected from the local regions and was authenticated by the botanist. Pharmacognostical study included macroscopical characters, microscopical characters, physico-chemical constants and fluorescence analysis. Preliminary phytochemical screening includes phytochemical extraction, phytochemical testing and thin layer chromatography (TLC). Macroscopical study of the rhizome revealed that it is napiform, smooth with membranous peeling leaving a white surface. It has initially sweet and then intensely bitter taste. Transverse section showed presence of simple and compound starch grains. The total ash value of 3.695% and sulphated ash value of 4.17% was obtained. Loss on drying showed presence of 3.89% of moisture content. While performing the successive solvent extraction, the maximum extractive value of 25.7% was seen in aqueous extract. When exposed to UV light ethyl acetate extract, methanol and aqueous extract showed green fluorescence. Preliminary phytochemical studies show the presence of carbohydrates, flavanoids, alkaloids, mucilages, proteins and amino acids. Performing TLC of methanolic extract using methanol: chloroform (3:17) as solvent system, three alkaloids were identified. The study helps in the correct identification of the herb. The presence of alkaloids and flavanoids explains that the plant must have valuable medicinal properties which must be explored.
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