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ACTIVE PRINCIPLES AND MEDIAN LETHAL DOSE OF CURCUMA LONGA LINN.

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Author(s): Pandey Govind

Journal: International Research Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2230-8407

Volume: 2;
Issue: 5;
Start page: 239;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Active principles | Curcuma longa (Haldi) | Median lethal dose | Phytochemical study | Toxicity study.

ABSTRACT
The present study aimed to determine the active principles and median lethal dose (LD50) of Curcuma longa (Haldi) by conducting phytochemical and toxicity (acute and chronic) studies. The hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) of haldi was prepared and its extractability was calculated as 35.9%. The chemical tests revealed the presence of many active principles (phytoconstituents) such as alkaloids, glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins, resins, saponins, sterols and fixed oils. For acute toxicity, including median lethal dose (LD50) of C. longa, its HAE was administered @ 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight to female albino rats of groups 2 to 4, respectively. Rats of group 1 were administered with normal saline to serve as control. No mortality in any group of rats was found up to 48 hr, thus this drug has the LD50 above 1000 mg/kg. For chronic toxicity of C. longa HAE, similar drug dosage schedule was applied in groups 1 to 4 of rats as used for acute toxicity study; however, the drug-extract was given for 3 weeks. During both acute and chronic toxicity studies, C. longa HAE @ 1000 mg/kg elicited some gross observational effects like initial excitement, followed by mild depression, dullness, decreased respiration and reduced spontaneous motor activity (SMA). The results suggest that although haldi contains many pharmacologically important active principles but its higher dose (1000 mg/kg) is slightly toxic.

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