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The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

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Author(s): R Namas | A Ghuma | L Hermus | R Zamora | DO Okonkwo | TR Billiar | Y Vodovotz

Journal: Libyan Journal of Medicine
ISSN 1819-6357

Volume: 4;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 136;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: systems biology | Inflammation | traumatic brain injury | hemorrhagic shock | trauma

ABSTRACT
Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherentlydetrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and is partiallypropagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated Molecular Patterns; DAMP’s).DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various animal models of T/HS in mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and nonhumanprimates have been utilized in an attempt to move from bench to bedside. Novel approaches, including those from the field of systems biology, may yield therapeutic breakthroughs in T/HS andTBI in the near future.
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