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Acute renal failure in pediatric patients: Etiology and predictors of outcome

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Author(s): Ghani Amal | Al Helal Bassam | Hussain Naser

Journal: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
ISSN 1319-2442

Volume: 20;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 69;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Multi-organ failure | Dialysis | Unstable hemodynamics | Vasopressors | Mechanical ventilation

ABSTRACT
Acute renal failure (ARF) is the acute loss of kidney function over hours or days, the etiology of which varies in different countries. The data on the etiology and outcome of ARF in Arab children is limited. Our objective was to define the causes and predictors of outcome of ARF in Kuwaiti children, and the variables determining their fitness for dialysis. A total of 32 children with ARF were evaluated regarding their demographic and clinical data, the cause of ARF and the co-morbidities. Data were analyzed to find the independent variables determining fitness for dia-lysis and outcome. Males comprised 62.5% of the study children; 46.9% of ARF cases were due to sepsis and 56.2% underwent renal replacement therapy (RRT). Univariate analysis showed that age, hemodynamic instability, use of vasopressors, multi-organ failure (MOF), and mechanical venti-lation contributed to fitness for dialysis. However, MOF was the only independent variable affecting fitness for dialysis. The overall mortality was 43.8%. Univariate analysis showed that age below 24-months, hemodynamic instability, use of vasopressors, fluid overload, need for mecha-nical ventilation, MOF and late referral to the nephrologist were associated with poor outcome. However, multivariate analysis documented MOF, and the time of nephrologists′ intervention as independent prognostic indicators. Our study suggests that sepsis was the major cause of pediatric ARF. RRT is the optimal treatment, and the only factor determining child′s fitness for dialysis is MOF.

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