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ADN – The new oxidizer around the corner for an environmentally friendly smokeless propellant

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Author(s): Márcio Y. Nagamachi | José Irineu S. Oliveira | Aparecida M. Kawamoto | Rita de Cássia L. Dutra

Journal: Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management
ISSN 1984-9648

Volume: 1;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 153;
Date: 2009;
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Keywords: ADN | Ammonium dinitrate | Smokeless propellant | green propellant | oxidizer

ABSTRACT
The search for a smokeless propellant has encouraged scientists and engineers to look for a chlorine-free oxidizer as a substitute for AP (ammonium perchlorate). Endeavors seemed to come to an end when ADN (ammonium dinitramide) appeared in the West in the early 1990s. Although some drawbacks soon became apparent by that time, the foremost obstacle for its use in rocket-motors came from the patent originally applied for in the United States in 1990. Furthermore, environmental concerns have also increased during these two decades. Ammonium perchlorate is believed to cause thyroid cancer by contaminating soil and water. In addition, AP produces hydrogen chloride during burning which can cause acid rain and ozone layer depletion. Unlike AP, ADN stands for both smokeless and green propellant. Since then, much progress has been made in its development in synthesis, re-shaping, microencapsulation and solid propellant. The high solubility of ADN in water has also allowed its application as liquid monopropellant. Tests have revealed Isp (specific impulse) superior to that normally observed with hydrazine, one of the most harmful and hazardous liquid propellants. With constraints of use, along with the patent near to expiry, scientists and engineers are rushing to complete developments and patents until then.
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