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Adrenoleukodystrophy: case report and aspects relevant to the otorhinolaryngologist

Author(s): Queiroz, Maria Carolina Souza | Barros, Emilia L. de | Antunes, Marcos L | Garcia, Roberta Ismael Dias | Kunigk, Michele R G | Rapoport, Priscila B

Journal: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
ISSN 1809-9777

Volume: 13;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 322;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Adrenoleukodystrophy | Deglutition disorders | Neurosensorial hearing loss

Introduction: Adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetic disease with heritage standard bound to X, which consists of an alteration of the metabolism and causes an accumulation of fatty acids of a very large chain (AGCML) associated to demyelinization of axons and adrenal insufficiency. It may initially manifest with alterations of behavior, hearing, vision, speech, writing, gait, and in the more advanced cases, it results in generalized hypertension, loss of cognitive and motor functions and dysphagia. The diagnosis is confirmed by dosing the AGCML's plasmatic levels, findings of the Magnetic Resonance and karyotype. Case Report: We report the case of A.V.F., 5 years old, sent to the otorhinolaryngology service for school and communication difficulties of auditory evaluation. The audiometry confirmed a bilateral moderate hearing loss. Some months after he evolved with progressive loss of vision, worsening of writing and aggressiveness, and was then forwarded to the neuropediatrician with the hypothesis of neurodegenerative disease. Magnetic Resonance was carried out and showed extensive parieto-occipital lesions. His diagnosis was confirmed through karyotype performed by a geneticist with an immediate beginning of the treatment. Approximately 1 year after the beginning of the symptoms, he presented with severe oropharyngeal dysphagia and silent bronchoaspiration diagnosed by the video-deglutogram exam. Final Comments: Today with gastrotomy. So far, there is no therapy defined for adrenoleukodystrophy. The otorhinolaryngologist must know this disease because, as well as in the case described above, he/she is one of the first professionals.
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