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Adubação nitrogenada beneficia soja alagada Nitrogen fertilization benefits soybean under flooding conditions

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Author(s): Luciana Nunes Menolli Lanza | Sarita Carneiro Rossi | Ladaslav Sodek

Journal: Bragantia
ISSN 0006-8705

Issue: ahead;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: encharcamento | Glycine max | nitrogênio | crescimento vegetal | waterlogging | Glycine max | nitrogen | plant development

ABSTRACT
RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar o desenvolvimento de cinco cultivares de soja produzidas no Estado de São Paulo, em situação de alagamento do sistema radicular, e avaliar a resposta das plantas ao nitrato nessa situação. No trabalho, foram analisadas a área foliar, a massa seca da parte aérea, o volume do sistema radicular e a massa seca do sistema radicular das cultivares de soja IAC Foscarin-31, IAC-23, IAC-17, IAC-24 e IAC-18, além de análise histológica do caule e da raiz principal da cultivar IAC-23, das plantas mantidas durante 28 dias alagadas. Todas as cultivares foram submetidas aos tratamentos: alagamento do vaso sem nitrato; alagamento com nitrato e alagamento com nitrato adicionado após sete dias de experimento. Os resultados indicam que a escolha da cultivar e a adição de nitrato devem ser levadas em consideração para o plantio em regiões com potencial para alagamento. A presença de nitrato foi benéfica para as cinco cultivares avaliadas. Na cultivar IAC-24 notou-se maior crescimento em presença de nitrato. A adição de nitrato sete dias após alagamento promoveu maior crescimento na cultivar IAC Foscarin-31. A presença de aerênquima no caule e na raiz principal de plantas alagadas foi constatada em todos os tratamentos, porém houve variação no arranjo das células parenquimáticas, o qual foi mais compacto nos tratamentos com nitrato.ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the growth of five cultivars of soybean produced in the State of São Paulo under conditions of flooding and evaluate the response of the plants to nitrate under such conditions. The study involved the analysis of leaf area, shoot dry mass, volume of the root system and root dry mass, using the soybean cultivars IAC Foscarin-31, IAC-23, IAC-17, IAC-24 and IAC-18, as well as a histological analysis of the stem and main root of the cultivar IAC-23, after being maintained for 28 days under flooding conditions. All cultivars were submitted to the following treatments: flooding of the root system without nitrate; flooding in the presence of nitrate; and flooding with nitrate added seven days after flooding. Our data indicate that the choice of cultivar and the use of nitrate should be taken into account for the planting of soybean in regions subject to flooding. The presence of nitrate during flooding was beneficial for all five cultivars tested. The cultivar IAC-24 presented the highest growth in the presence of nitrate. IAC Foscarin-31 was the most responsive cultivar to the addition of nitrate seven days after flooding, when considering plant growth. The presence of aerenchyma on the stem and main root of the flooded plants was observed for all treatments. However, variation occurred in the arrangement of parenchyma cells, this being more compact in the treatments with nitrate.
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