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The allergy adjuvant effect of particles – genetic factors influence antibody and cytokine responses

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Author(s): Nygaard Unni | Aase Audun | Løvik Martinus

Journal: BMC Immunology
ISSN 1471-2172

Volume: 6;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 11;
Date: 2005;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background There is increasing epidemiological and experimental evidence for an aggravating effect of particulate air pollution on asthma and allergic symptoms and, to a lesser extent, on allergic sensitization. Genetic factors appear to influence not only the magnitude, but also the quality of the adjuvant effect of particles with respect to allergen-specific IgE (Th2-associated) and IgG2a (Th1-associated) responses. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how the genetic background influences the responses to the allergen and particles alone and in combination. We examined how polystyrene particles (PSP) affected the IgE and IgG2a responses against the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA), after subcutaneous injection into the footpad of BALB/cA, BALB/cJ, NIH and C3H/HeN mice, Further, ex vivo IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokine secretion by Con A-stimulated cells from the draining popliteal lymph node (PLN) five days after injection of OVA and PSP separately or in combination was determined. Results PSP injected with OVA increased the levels of OVA-specific IgE antibodies in all strains examined. In contrast, the IgG2a levels were significantly increased only in NIH and C3H/HeN mice. PSP in the presence of OVA increased cell numbers and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels in BALB/cA, NIH and C3H/HeN mice, with the exception of IFN-γ in NIH mice. However, each mouse strain had their unique pattern of response to OVA+PSP, OVA and PSP, and also their unique background cytokine response (i.e. the cytokine response in cells from mice injected with buffer only). Conclusion Genetic factors (i.e. the strain of mice) influenced the susceptibility to the adjuvant effect of PSP on both secondary antibody responses and primary cellular responses in the lymph node, as well as the cellular responses to both OVA and PSP given separately. Interestingly, PSP alone induced cytokine responses in the lymph node in some of the mouse strains. Furthermore, we found that the ex vivo cytokine patterns did not predict the in vivo Th2- and Th1-associated antibody response patterns in the different mouse strains. The results indicate that insoluble particles act by increasing the inherent response to the allergen, and that the genetic background may determine whether an additional Th1-associated component is added to the response.
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