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Author(s): Mehul R. Chorawala et al.

Journal: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
ISSN 0975-8232

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 434;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: Anti-atherosclerotic | Anti-oxidant | Anti-inflammatory | Anti-proliferative | Pioglitazone | N-acetylcysteine

Atherosclerosis involves disturbances in endothelium and the resultant cascade of inflammatory reactions involving generation of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) receptors are more expressed during atherosclerosis process and its stimulation results in inhibition of formation of atherosclerotic plaque. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) stimulates GSH (glutathione) formation and thus helps in scavenging ROS. Thus, the purpose of present study is to explore the role of PPAR- agonist (pioglitazone) and N-acetylcysteine in atherosclerosis. Endothelial injury in hyper-lipidemic rat was produced in the femoral artery. The effect of chronic treatment of pioglitazone, N-acetylcysteine and their combination was evaluated by measuring serum HDL, LDL, triglyceride, total cholesterol and lesion index. Pioglitazone and N-acetylcysteine treated rats showed higher levels of HDL and lower levels of LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol as compared to model control animals (diet + endothelial injury model). Combination of both pioglitazone and N-acetylcysteine produced synergistic action with respect to lipid level. N-acetylcysteine treated animals showed high GSH levels in the liver. Femoral artery lesion index was significantly less in the groups treated with pioglitazone (1.3±0.09), N-acetylcysteine (3.17±0.28) as well as their combination (1.02±0.07) when compared with model control group (4.57±0.19). From all above results, it can be concluded that PPAR- agonist (pioglitazone) and N-acetylcysteine are having anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant and/or anti-inflammatory activity which may be responsible for anti-atherosclerotic activity.
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