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ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. STEM BARK IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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Author(s): Ramnik Singh

Journal: Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy
ISSN 0976-0105

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 16;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Anacardium occidentale | Non insulin dependent | diabetes | streptozotocin

ABSTRACT
The numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. The effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of Anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. The ethanol extract of A. occidentale had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats when fed simultaneously with glucose. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant opposing effect in serum glucose rise after administration of glucose. Additionally, its dichloromethane extract also exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to control after glucose administration while its butanol fraction was devoid of this activity. These findings conclude that the active principles responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect might be concentrated in the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions of the extract.
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