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Antimicrobial activity of the leaves of three species of Nigerian Pterocarpus (Jacq.)

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Author(s): G. G. E. OSUAGWU | C. B. AKOMAS

Journal: International Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
ISSN 2249-4340

Volume: 3;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 178;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Pterocarpus species | Ethanolic extracts | Antimicrobial activity | Inhibition zone | Minimum inhibitory concentration

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extracts of freshly expanded and older leaves of Pterocarpus soyauxii, P. santalinoides and P. osun against some human pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhii, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed using the Agar well diffusion method in nutrient agar, maconkey agar, blood agar and sabround dextrose agar. The ethanolic extracts of the samples showed moderate to high activity against all the tested pathogens. The inhibition zone ranged from 3.00 mm to 25 mm. Generally, the freshly expanded leaves (3.00 mm to 18 mm) tend to have higher antimicrobial activity when compared to that of older leaves (4.33 mm to 14.50 mm). P. osun leaves showed more antimicrobial activity on the test pathogens, when compared with those of the leaves of the other species. The concentration of the extract also affected the ability of the extract to inhibit the growth of the pathogens. The higher the concentration of the extract, the higher the rate of inhibition of the pathogens. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) ranged from 0.25 to 11.00 mg/ml. The result obtained indicates that the leaves of the plants have antimicrobial activity against the human pathogenic microorganism tested and can be exploited as alternative antimicrobial drug use for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by these pathogens.
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