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Antimicrobial Activity of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze and Its Synergism with Different Antibiotics

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Author(s): Mariele Caroline Marques Nogueira Puhl | Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez | Tânia Ueda-Nakamura | Celso Vataru Nakamura | Benedito Prado Dias Filho

Journal: Molecules
ISSN 1420-3049

Volume: 16;
Issue: 12;
Start page: 9925;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Piper gaudichaudianum | chromone | prenylated derivatives | antimicrobial activity | synergism

ABSTRACT
One of the oldest forms of medical practice is the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of diseases that affect humans. We have studied the antimicrobial activity and synergism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze with different antibiotics. The crude extract from the leaves of P. gaudichaudianum was submitted to chromatographic separation, resulting in five fractions. Fraction F3 contained a chromone (2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxycroman-4-one), and fraction F2 contained isomers that are prenylated derivatives of benzoic acid [4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-E-2'-6'-dienyl)benzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-2'-Z-6'-dienyl) benzoic acid]. The chemical structures of both compounds were determined by analysis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COZY, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral data, and by comparison with data in the literature. The crude extract, fraction F2, and fraction F3 showed good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida tropicalis. The two benzoic acid derivatives only showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The bioauthographic analysis showed an inhibition zone only in fraction F2. Fractions F2 and F3 showed synergism in combination with ceftriaxone, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Morphological changes in form and structure were found by scanning electron microscopy in S. aureus treated with the combination of fraction F2 with vancomycin.
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