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The appearance of renal cells cytoplasmic degeneration and nuclear destruction might be an indication of GNPs toxicity

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Author(s): Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar | Jarrar Bashir

Journal: Lipids in Health and Disease
ISSN 1476-511X

Volume: 10;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 147;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: gold nanoparticles | renal tissue | histology | hydropic degeneration | nanotoxicity

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background Advances in nanotechnology have identified promising candidates for many biological and biomedical applications. Since the properties of nanoparticles (NPs) differ from that of their bulk materials, they are being increasingly exploited for medical uses and other industrial applications. The histological and the histochemical alterations in the renal tissues due to gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have not well documented and have not yet been identified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the particle-size effect of GNPs on the renal tissue in an attempt to address their potential toxicity. Methods A total of 70 healthy male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to GNPs received 50 or 100 μl of GNPs infusion of size (10, 20 and 50 nm for 3 or 7 days) to investigate particle-size effect of GNPs on the renal tissue. Animals were randomly divided into groups, 6 GNPs-treated rats groups and one control group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received infusion of 50 μl GNPs of size 10 nm (3 or 7 days), size 20 nm (3 or 7 days) and 50 nm (3 or 7 days), respectively; while groups 4, 5 and 6 received infusion of 100 μl GNPs of size 10 nm, size 20 nm and 50 nm, respectively. Results The histological alterations were mainly seen in the cortex and the proximal renal convoluted tubules were more affected than the distal ones. In comparison with respective control rats, exposure to GNPs doses has produced the following renal tubular alterations: cloudy swelling and renal tubular necrosis. Interstitial alterations included: intertubular blood capillaries dilatation, intertubular hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltrations. The glomeruli showed moderate congestion with no hypercelluraity and mesangial proliferation or basement membrane thickening. Conclusions The induced histological alterations might be an indication of injured renal tubules due to GNPs toxicity that become unable to deal with the accumulated residues resulting from metabolic and structural disturbances caused by these NPs. These alterations were size-dependent with smaller ones induced more effects and related with time exposure of GNPs. The produced histological alterations may suggest that GNPs interact with proteins and enzymes of the renal tissue interfering with the antioxidant defense mechanism and leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation which in turn may induce stress in the renal cells to undergo atrophy and necrosis. More histomorphologcal investigations are needed to address the potential threat of GNPs as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool.
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