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Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

Author(s): Skorupan Dara | Skala Dejan U.

Journal: Hemijska Industrija
ISSN 0367-598X

Volume: 56;
Issue: 7-8;
Start page: 317;
Date: 2002;
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Keywords: SCF | extraction | analytical methods | CO2 | SCWO

Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others). However, interest in wet oxidation (WO) and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air) has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.
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