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Arcanobacterium pyogenes: Virulence factors, importance in mastitis etiology and therapeutic (im)possibilities

Author(s): Milanov Dubravka | Petrović Jelena | Kapetanov Miloš | Suvajdžić Ljiljana

Journal: Veterinarski Glasnik
ISSN 0350-2457

Volume: 65;
Issue: 3-4;
Start page: 235;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Arcanobacterium pyogenes | virulence factors | mastitis | antimicrobial therapy

Arcanobacterium pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen, a causative agent of suppurative infections of organs and tissues in economically important livestock species. Most frequently this bacteria is isolated from inflamed lung lesions in pigs and cattle, in samples of uterine mucus of cows with endometritis and milk from cows with clinical mastitis. A. pyogenes possesses a number of virulence factors: cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (pyolysin), two neuraminidases, several proteases, extracellular matrix-binding proteins, DNases, fimbriae. The virulence factors are well studied in laboratory conditions, but the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of A. pyogenes infections remains to be elucidated. Lately, the ability of A. pyogenes to form biofilm in vivo has also been implicated as a virulence factor and a possible cause of therapeutic failure. Despite the fact that A. pyogenes milk isolates in cows with mastitis in vitro are very sensitive to β-lactam drugs and tetracycline, experience has shown that therapy is usually ineffective, prognosis is poor and the affected quarter is lost for milk production.
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