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Assessment and heavy metal behaviors of industrial waste water: A case study of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

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Author(s): Abdullah S. Al-Farraj | Mohammad Al-Sewailem | Anwar Aly

Journal: Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences
ISSN 2220-8860

Volume: 3;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 266;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: industrial effluents | heavy metals | chemical constituent | Riyadh city

ABSTRACT
This study focuses on the temporal monitoring and chemical analysis of two pathways, unpadded and open drain canal, of the surface industrials effluent on industrial city of Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (Major, Minor, and Heavy metals) is determined and compared with Saudi Arabia and USEPA standards. The obtained results indicated that most collected water samples exceeded the acceptable limits set by standards used for most parameters determined. The concentrations of total suspended solids, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Mo, As, B, NO3-, and NH4+ in industrial effluents decreases away from the point source of pollutions. On the other hand, the SAR , RSC, total hardness, and soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+,Na+, K+, Cl-, CO3 2-, HCO3-, and SO4 2-), remained constant. Most heavy metals on wastewater effulent were above permissible limits. On the other hand, the filtration of wastewater decreases the heavy metal concentrations to permissible levels. The highest average metals concentration in digested effluents for deferent locations and sampling periods were Fe (17.1 mg/L) followed by Mo (11.6 mg/L), then Co (0.03 mg/L). However the Mo recorded the highest value in filtrated effluents (23.2 ug/L) followed by Fe (21.6 ug/L), and then Cd (8.02 ug/L). The monitoring of wastewater heavy metals concentrations (determined on filtrate for both pathway) recorded that the concentration of Fe, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, As, Ni, and Mn decreased from (60-100 ug/L) at point sources to be (5-10 ug/L) at 1000 m from point sources, however no clear behavior was recorded for Cu and Co. Moreover the concentrations of all heavy metals by the last sampling point on downstream were remained at 10 ug/L or less. The study emphasis that continuous application of industrial wastewater on Riyadh environment will lead to more accumulation of heavy metals in the soil and natural plants, and also high possibilities of groundwater contamination by nitrate.
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