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Assessment of the synthesis routes conditions for obtaining ammonium dinitramide by the FT-IR

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Author(s): José Irineu Sampaio de Oliveira | Márcio Yuji Nagamachi | Milton Faria Diniz | Elizabeth da Costa Mattos | Rita de Cássia Lazzarini Dutra

Journal: Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management
ISSN 1984-9648

Volume: 3;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 269;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Propellant | Oxidizer | Energetic material | ADN synthesis | Ammonium dinitramide | FT-IR | MIR | NIR

ABSTRACT
Over the last two decades, many routes have been proposed to synthesize ammonium dinitramide (ADN). However, most of them lie in routes in which reactants are too expensive for large-scale production. In this sense, the use of ordinary reactants is of paramount importance in this case. The aim in this synthesis consists on nitrating a starting reactant in a reaction known as nitration. Both the nitrating agent and the starting reactant should preferably be ordinary, narrowing the possibility of having realistic options for them. The most ordinary nitrating agent consists of a mixture of sulfuric and fuming nitric acids. Therefore, the breakthrough must come from the suitable choice of the starting reactant. However, so far, the only viable reaction relies on the use of sulfamate salts. Even though the process with this kind of salt has been largely commercially developed, only few information are available in the literature to properly address issues emerged from it. In this study, an attempt is made to enlighten some effects on the product caused by modifications in the route conditions. Characterization of the resulting products was confirmed by FT-IR in the region of MIR and NIR. The characteristic bands employed to identify ADN in the region of middle infrared were: 3129 and 1384 cm-1 (NH4+); 1537, 1344, 1209, and 1177 cm-1 (NO2); 1032, 954 cm-1 (N3); 828, 762 and 732 cm-1(NO2). The near infrared analysis pointed out few bands at 5185 and 4672 cm-1 in NH combination bands region. The resulting middle infrared spectrum was compared to the reference found in the literature for this product. The results show excellent agreement with the expected product.
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