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Associated risk factors and management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers exceeding 6 months’ duration

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Author(s): Hassan Gubara Musa | Mohamed ElMakki Ahmed

Journal: Diabetic Foot & Ankle
ISSN 2000-625X

Volume: 3;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: diabetic foot | ulcer | amputation | neuropathy | ischemia

ABSTRACT
Background: The management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) poses a great challenge to the treating physician and surgeon. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcomes associated with chronic DFU > 6 months’ duration. Methods: This prospective study was performed in Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre (JADC), Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 108 patients who had DFU for >6 months were included. Recorded data included patient's demographics, DFU presentation, associated comorbidities, and outcomes. DFU description included size, depth, protective sensation, perfusion, and presence of infection. Comorbidities assessed included eye impairment, renal and heart disease. All patients received necessary local wound care with sharp debridement of any concomitant necrotic and infected tissues and off-loading with appropriate shoe gear and therapeutic devices. Results: The mean age of the studied patients was 56+SD 9 years with a male to female ratio of 3:3.3. The mean duration of DFU was 18±SD 17 months (ranging from 6 to 84 months). Ulcer healing was significantly associated with off-loading, mainly the use of total contact cast (TCC) (p=0.013). Non-healing ulcerations were significantly associated with longer duration of the chronic DFU > 12 months (p=0.002), smoking (p=0.000), poor glycemic control as evidenced by an elevated HbA1c (>7%), large size (mean SD 8+4 cm), increased depth (p7%. Off-loading mainly with the use of TCC is an effective method of managing long-standing DFU.
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