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Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA)

Author(s): Youn Ho Shin | Jinho Yu | Kyung Won Kim | Kangmo Ahn | Seo-Ah Hong | Eun Lee | Song-I Yang | Young-Ho Jung | Hyung Young Kim | Ju-Hee Seo | Ji-Won Kwon | Byoung-Ju Kim | Hyo-Bin Kim | Jung Yeon Shim | Woo Kyung Kim | Dae Jin Song | So-Yeon Lee | Soo Young Lee | Gwang Cheon Jang | Dong In Suh | Hyeon-Jong Yang | Bong Sung Kim | Suk-Joo Choi | Soo-Young Oh | Ja-Young Kwon | Kyung-Ju Lee | Hee Jin Park | Pil Ryang Lee | Hye-Sung Won | Soo-Jong Hong

Journal: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
ISSN 1738-1061

Volume: 56;
Issue: 10;
Start page: 439;
Date: 2013;
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Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OH)D in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OH)D in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2). One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6%) showed 25(OH)D concentrations of 25.0–74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1%) showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OH)D concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004). Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively). Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.
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