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Autostrade del Mare: non è solo una questione di acqua Highways of the Sea: it is not only a matter of water

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Author(s): Rosa Anna La Rocca

Journal: TeMA : Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment
ISSN 1970-9889

Volume: 2;
Issue: 3;
Date: 2009;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Le Autostrade del Mare (AdM) si pongono come alternativa al trasporto terrestre di merci nel tentativo di decongestionare la rete viaria. Il programma “Autostrade del Mare” è previsto nel Piano Generale dei Trasporti approvato dal Consiglio dei Ministri nel 2001 e fa parte del piano generale delle Reti TEN-T (Trans-European Network-Transport) per il quale l’Unione Europea ha destinato sostanziose risorse, inserendolo nell’elenco delle trenta opere prioritarie. Il finanziamento previsto per il progetto, definitivamente approvato nel 2004 interessa fortemente l’Italia soprattutto per le direttrici del sud Europa. Le città portuali italiane si trovano a dover rafforzare il proprio ruolo per essere competitive rispetto ad altri porti del Mediterraneo e del nord Europa. Nello specifico, dovranno essere in grado di intercettare i flussi di traffico conteneirizzato, potenziando le proprie strutture, ma soprattutto, prevedendo un adeguato sistema infrastrutturale per garantire l’intermodalità del trasporto terra-mare. Si tratterà, in sostanza, di rivedere l’intero sistema portuale per ridefinire il sistema dei servizi offerti. In alcuni casi, sarà necessario una rete di porti minori a supporto delle attività necessarie ai traffici di merci che verranno ad incrementarsi. Tale coordinamento presuppone la messa a punto di programmi e progetti condivisi sia dai soggetti pubblici che da quelli privati a livello locale, regionale e nazionale. In tale visione, la riorganizzazione della struttura portuale non può prescindere dalla riorganizzazione del territorio circostante: i porti avranno sempre più bisogno del territorio per essere competitivi. In tale contesto, l’integrazione tra porto e città diventa, una condizione indispensabile per lo sviluppo.The Motorways of the Sea (MoS) concept was first introduced within the EU executive’s White Paper on European Transport Policy back in 2001. So far, four Motorways of the Sea corridors have been considered to be fully working by 2010: the “Baltic Sea”, the “Sea of Western Europe”, the “Sea of South-East Europe” and the “Sea of South-West Europe”. In this project Italy occupies a central role both geographical and strategic. In fact, among the thirty priority projects for the realization of the TEN-T network, five projects involve Italian regions. For this reason too, the realization of Motorways of the Sea represents a focal point of the Italian government policy. As matter of fact, Italian seaport are characterized by a lack of availability of coastal areas. This is because of morphological aspects but much more it is due to the closely relation between port and city. In Italian case, in fact, the port structure is close to historic city and it is a very important part of the history of the city itself. The heavy demand of space due to the increasing specialization of port activities will strongly modify this relationship. The project “Motorways of the Sea” bases on the idea that maritime traffics could be a valid alternative to the road traffic both to reduce pollutions and negative effects. Its development needs more disposable and specialized areas to make maritime transport more competitive than road one. Competitiveness amongst ports is based on infrastructural comparison, then ports will need more and more spaces to be ready for action. The reorganization of the regions closed to ports will be strongly request. In the meantime the integration between port and city becomes an essential development condition. Critical issue are addressed to the “city-port region” to be integrated and competitive. To be efficient, these “regions”should have services and facilities tailored to the needs of new methods of integrated transport. In some cases the reorganization of the whole city-port system will be required. Such a reorganization needs a public and private coordination in order to reduce negative impacts on urban system. The success of the project of Motorways of the Sea also depends on ability to integrate port objectives of development and urban exigencies. This article proposes to investigate the possibility of achieving such integration.
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