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Before planting on the plum behaviour

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Author(s): Mihail Iancu

Journal: Scientific Papers of the Research Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti, Romania
ISSN 1584-2231

Volume: XXIV;
Start page: 99;
Date: 2008;
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Keywords: Soil type | soil plowing | deep plowing

ABSTRACT
Among the fruit species grown in Romania, the plum sp. is the leader both in terms of acreage and number of trees, because it claims lower soil needs. The, most of plum orchards are established on clayey-illuvial soils. An essential property of the heavy-clay soils is the clay accumulation in the upper part of B horizon which leads to a low permeability of water and air, as well as a higher resistance to deep root penetration. On the other hand, the air-water regime of this type of soil is not high by favorable for the fruit tree growing, showing frequently, an excess or deficit of moisture under our climatic conditions. To improve these conditions and to find the fruit trees response to them, some studies in this respect were carried out. This paper shows the comparative results of these studies. It was used the following experimental scheme: A Factor – location of the experimental field and investigation period, with the graduations: a1 – flat land on the 3rd terrace of “Doamnei” River on a typic planosol (PLti) with a clayey texture in Colibasi village, 14 Km N for from Pitesti. The soil had over the 0-20 cm depth, a 56.3% clay content (particle size Ø< 0.002 mm, (C), a 1.29 g/cm-3 bulk density (BD), a 6.0 mm h-1 satured hydraulic conductivity (Ks), and a 1.68% humus content; over the 20-60 cm depth, the above soil properties had the following values: 63,6% C, 1,35 g/cm-³ BD, 1.3 mm h-1 Ks, and 0.80% humus content. Anna Spath cv. grafted on Mirobolan (1983 – 1989) was used in this experiment. a2 – flat land in Smeura willage in the Pitesti Plain, 7 km far from Piteşti westwards, on an albic pseudo-gleyed, vertic luvosol (SPvs-pz), with a medium loamy – clayey texture. The soil had over 0-20 cm depth the following values of the properties studied: 40.8% C, 1.22 g/cm-3 BD, 5.6 mm-1 Ks and 2.12% humus content; over 20-60 cm depth, the above soil properties had the following values: 40.1%C, 1.34 g/cm-3BD, 3.2 mmh-1 Ks, and 1.68% humus content. With this plot, Agen 707 cv. grafted on Mirobolan (1978 - 1984) was studied. B Factor – soil tillage system (STS) before plantyng: b1 – ploughing at 23 cm soil depth, b2 – deep ploughing at 40 cm depth, b3 – deep ploughing at 55 cm, b4 = deep loosened at 55 cm depth, spaced at 1 m as well as ploughing at 23 cm. C Factor– soil fertilization system (SFS): c1 – 10 kg/tree manure application on tree planting; c2 – fertilized with 40 t/ha manure (a1) and with 60 t/ha manure (a2) applied on the entire area before soil tillage. Therefore, a trifactorial experiment like 2 x 4 x 2 designed as subdivided blocks in 4 replications was organized. The average rainfalls for March 1 – May 31 period in the year of tree planting was 76 mm, in a1, representing 135% of the normal value for the above period, and 62.1 mm in a2, representing 111% of the normal value for the above period. There were stressed the physical and chemical modifications caused by the soil preparation and fertilization in each location. Also, the effects of the experimental factors on the tree growth and fruiting as well as on the chemical compounds were quantified. In a1 deep ploughed at 55 cm vs. 22 cm ploughed determined a 111% decrease in trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) growth, over the first six years from tree planting, while in a2 a 143% increase in TCSA growth was found in the deep ploughing treatment versus the normal ploughing one, over the same period of time. Deep ploughing at 55 cm, versus the normal ploughing ar 22 cm determined an increase in fruit yield by 322% in a2 ( in the 2nd year after the trees came into bearing) and by 120% (kg/cm2 TCSA) in a1 soil (in the first tree fruiting years).
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