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Bioassay for Toxicity Assessment of Zinc Oxide and Titanium Oxideto Escherichia Coli ATCC 35218 and Staphylococcus Aureus ATCC25923 Bacteria

Author(s): Naddafi K. | Zare M.R. | Younesian M. | Rastkari N. | Alimohammadi M. | Mousavi N.

Journal: Iranian Journal of Health and Environment
ISSN 2008-2029

Volume: 4;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 171;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Nanoparticle | Zinc Oxide | Titanium Oxide | Toxicity | Bioassay | Escherichia Coli | Staphylococcus Aureus

Background and Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of Titanium Oxide (TiO2) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as two of most widely used nanoparticles. The result of this study can help to designing environmental standard and legislations for nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of nano ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were added to nutrient Agar culture media. Then, definite numbers of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria were added to culture media and inhibition of these bacteria growth was measured in comparison to controls. Obtained data were analyzed to determine nanoparticles' EC50 and NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration) using SPSS ver.16 and Probit standard test.Results: 24-hours EC50 of nano ZnO using E. coli and S. aureus determined to be 5.47 mg/L and 2.38 mg/L respectively. In addition, 24-hours EC50 of nano TiO2 using E. coli and S. aureus determined to be 5366 mg/L and 3471 mg/L respectively. In the case of ZnO nanoparticles, no observed effect concentration determined to be 1.15 and 3.28 mg/L for E. coli and S. aureus respectively and in the case of TiO2 nanoparticles no observed effect level determined to be 1937 and 1184 mg/L for E. coli and S. aureus respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that acute toxicity of nano ZnO is by far more than that of nano TiO2. Regarding the EPA acute toxicity criteria, nano ZnO is categorized as moderately toxic and nano TiO2 is categorized as practically non toxic. Hence, regarding the acute toxicity, in recommending exposure criteria and environmental disposal standards, compared to nano TiO2, nano ZnO requires more attention.
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