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Biochemical and Histological Studies of Aqueous Extract of Bidens pilosa Leaves from Ugandan Rift Valley in Rats

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Author(s): J.O.C. Ezeonwumelu | A.K. Julius | C.N. Muhoho | A.M. Ajayi | A.A. Oyewale | J.K. Tanayen | S.O. Balogun | A. Ibrahim | B. Adzu | C.P. Adiukwu | J. Oloro | D.M. Kiplagat | A.D.T. Goji | A.G. Okoruwa | A.N. Onchweri | P.M.K. Reddy

Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
ISSN 2044-2459

Volume: 2;
Issue: 6;
Start page: 302;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Acute toxicity | Bidens pilosa | phytochemicals | sub-chronic toxicity | tissues | Uganda

ABSTRACT
Bidens pilosa, a member of the Asteraceae family, is one of the dominant medicinal plant species worldwide including Uganda. This study aimed at assessing both acute and sub-chronic toxicities of Bidens pilosa Leaves Extract (BPLE). Phytochemical tests were done on BPLE to detect the presence of secondary metabolites. In acute toxicity test, a single oral dose of BPLE (500-10,000 mg/kg) was used on each group of Wistar rats. For sub-chronic toxicity study, BPLE (200-800 mg/kg) and distilled water were orally administered daily for 28 days. Signs of toxicity were observed and rats sacrificed, blood and organs collected for biochemical and histological studies. The BPLE was found to contain tannins, flavonoids, phlobatannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. No mortality was recorded during the studies in rats. There was a general reduction in mean percentage body weight gain of test rats compared with control; statistically significant (p
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