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Can Body Mass Index (BMI) be used as a screening tool for Osteoporosis?

Author(s): Bhavnish Bucktowarsing | K.V Acharya

Journal: International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health
ISSN 1840-4529

Volume: 3;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 229;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: BMI | Body Mass Index | Osteoporosis | Orthopedics | Retrospective Study | Screening tool

Background: Osteoporosis is one of the leading causes of pathological fractures in the world and puts alot of moral as well as financial burden on the patients. Therefore it is important to be able to predict orprovide early diagnosis for this condition. In this perspective the aim of study was to determine whetherBMI can be used as a screening tool for osteoporosis. This study was sponsored by ICMR (IndianCouncil of Medical Research) under the Short Term Studentship programme STS 2009. 21/KA/KMCMP-64/09-BMSAim: Determine whether BMI can be used as a screening tool for osteoporosis.Objectives:1. Establish the strength of association between BMI and osteoporosis.2. Determine the proportion of patients having a BMI below the cut-off value of 18.5kg/m2 in eachpopulation i.e. cases (osteoporotic group) and controls(non-osteoporotic group)3. Determine whether there is a significant difference between the two proportions mentionedabove.Both a strong association and a significant difference between the two proportions needed to be present tosay that BMI can be used as a screening tool.Study design: Case control studyMethodology: 564 files of female patients were used for collection of data (Source: Kasturba HospitalOsteoporosis Registry concerning women patients). Ethics committee clearance was obtained prior to useof data. The case control study involved two populations:• Cases (Women having osteoporosis)• Controls (Women not having osteoporosis)Selection of cases and controlsa) Definition of cases• Diagnostic Criteria: WHO clinical definition of osteoporosis: Bone Mineral Density (BMD)2.5 or more standard deviation below the peak bone mass.BMD is measured using Ultrasound based technique (Sunlight Omnisense 7000, right distal radius) at theKasturba Hospitalb) Definition of controls• Non-osteoporotic group - BMD of 1.0 standard deviation below normal peak bone mass orhigher.BMI was calculated as per the WHO guidelinesi.Statistical Analysis: Pearson’s Chi Square Test yielded a Chi Square value of 25.262. P value: less than0.01 (P
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