Academic Journals Database
Disseminating quality controlled scientific knowledge

Cardiorenal syndromes

ADD TO MY LIST
 
Author(s): Peter A McCullough | Aftab Ahmad

Journal: World Journal of Cardiology
ISSN 1949-8462

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 1;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Heart diseases | Kidney diseases | Cardiovascular diseases | Biological biomarkers | Creatinine

ABSTRACT
Cardiorenal syndromes (CRS) have been subclassified as five defined entities which represent clinical circumstances in which both the heart and the kidney are involved in a bidirectional injury and dysfunction via a final common pathway of cell-to-cell death and accelerated apoptosis mediated by oxidative stress. Types 1 and 2 involve acute and chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) scenarios leading to acute kidney injury or accelerated chronic kidney disease. Types 2 and 3 describe acute and chronic kidney disease leading primarily to heart failure, although it is possible that acute coronary syndromes, stroke, and arrhythmias could be CVD outcomes in these forms of CRS. Finally, CRS type 5 describes a simultaneous insult to both heart and kidneys, such as sepsis, where both organs are injured simultaneously. Both blood and urine biomarkers are reviewed in this paper and offer a considerable opportunity to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiology and known epidemiology of these recently defined syndromes.
Save time & money - Smart Internet Solutions     

Tango Jona
Tangokurs Rapperswil-Jona