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Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng of Burkina Faso

Author(s): Onadja Yentema | Ouedraogo Alioune | Samate Abdoul Dorosso

Journal: Journal of Applied Sciences
ISSN 1812-5654

Volume: 7;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 503;
Date: 2007;
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Keywords: Cymbopogon schoenanthus | essential oil | optical activity | refractive index | interferometry

Essential oils have a significant role in the society where they are variously used in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, chemical and food-processing industries. This justifies interest which they cause and thus systematic studies are undertaken on aromatic species, allowing without any doubt their use advisedly. This study concerns the characterization of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus of Burkina Faso, extracted by drive with the water vapor in a distillation operation. The analysis of the chemical composition is carried out by Gas Chromatography. It shows that the 16 made up ones identified account for 65. 2% of the essential oil composition. These compounds belong to the two classes regularly met in essential oils: the mono ones and sesquiterpenes. However, proportion of monoterpenes (53. 2%) is higher than that of sesquiterpenes (12%). Among the identified compounds two monoterpenes (the piperitone and δ-2-carene) remain the principal components in the essential oil. Then the authors determine the density d = 0.9057 by double weighing, the optical activity α = +28.175 by polarimetry and the refractive index n = 1.465 by an interferometric method which they describe. Cymbopogon schoenanthus is an aromatic plant of the family of Poaceae very often used in traditional pharmacopoeia for internal as well as external treatments.

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