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Chemical Food Contaminants, Carcinogenicity and Carcinogenicity Testing: in-vitro Alternatives

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Author(s): Raju.S.*1, Uma Maheshwara rao.V2, Sreeramulu Reddy.K3, Ramya.G3, Vasanth Kumar. G4

Journal: Journal of Pharmacy Research
ISSN 0974-6943

Volume: 4;
Issue: 9;
Start page: 3099;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Harmful chemicals | Food contaminants | Carcinogenicity | in-vitro systems | Pivotal

ABSTRACT
The contamination of food by potentially harmful chemicals is a worldwide public health concern. There are many aspects of food toxicology and its impact on human health which remain to be explored. A major concern is that these chemicals, which can be synthetic or naturally occurring, may be a causative factor in human cancer. Cancers most commonly associated with harmful chemicals in food include epithelial cancers of the digestive tract, but of major nondigestive neoplasms such as lung, female breast, ovary, corpus and cervix uterus as well as prostate and thyroid. In vitro methods are common and widely used for screening and ranking chemicals, and have also been taken into account sporadically for risk assessment purposes in the case of chemical food contaminants. However, therange of food-associated compounds amenable to in vitro toxicology is considered much broader, comprising not only natural ingredients, including those from food preparation, but also compounds formed endogenously after exposure, permissible/authorized chemicals including additives, residues, supplements, chemicals from processing and packaging and contaminants. A major promise of in vitro systems is to obtain mechanism derived information that is considered pivotal for adequate risk assessment. This paper critically reviews food-associated chemicals, mechanisms of carcinogenicity and the entire process of risk assessment by in vitro alternatives, encompassing ongoing and future developments.
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