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Chronic Kidney Disease in Southwestern Iranian Children

Author(s): Ali Ahmadzadeh | Ehsan Valavi | Mehrnaz Zangeneh Kamali | Azin Ahmadzadeh

Journal: Iranian Journal of Pediatrics
ISSN 2008-2142

Volume: 19;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 147;
Date: 2009;
Original page

Keywords: Renal failure | Chronic kidney disease | Obstructive uropathy | Reflux nephropathy

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the etiology of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) among children attending the pediatric nephrology service at Abuzar children's hospital in Ahvaz city, the referral center in Southwest of Iran. Methods: We reviewed the records of 139 children, diagnosed to have CKD over a 10-year period. CKD was defined a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) below 60 ml/1.73 m2/min persisting for more than 3 months. Findings: Among 139 children 81 (58%) were males. The mean age at diagnosis of CKD in the patients was 4.2 (±3.6) years. Mean level of serum creatinine at presentation was 1.9 (±1.4) mg/dl. The mean GFR at presentation was 33.5 (±15.4) ml/1.73m2/min while 22% of the patients were already at end stage renal failure indicating that these children were referred too late. Congenital urologic malformation was the commonest cause of CKD present in 70 (50.4%) children [reflux nephropathy (23.1%), hypo/dysplastic kidney (15.8%), obstructive uropathy (10.8%), and prune belly syndrome (0.7%)]. Other causes included hereditary nephropathies (17.2%), chronic glomerulo-nephritis (6.5%), multisystemic diseases (4.3%), miscellaneous  and unknown (each one 10.8%). The mean duration of follow-up was 26 (±24.67) months. Peritoneal or hemodialysis was performed in 10 patients. Six patients underwent (4 live-related and 2 non-related) renal transplantation. The rest have died or received standard conservative management for CKD. Conclusion: The commonest causes of CKD were reflux nephropathy, hypo/dysplastic kidney, hereditary nephropathy and obstructive uropathy. Patients presented late, had severe CKD and were malnourished and stunted.
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