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Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

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Author(s): Bożena Kolano | Dorota Siwińska | Jolanta Małuszyńska

Journal: Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae
ISSN 0001-6977

Volume: 77;
Issue: 4;
Start page: 293;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: Chenopodium | polyploid | genome size | rDNA sequence | flow cytometry | polysomaty

ABSTRACT
Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18) and hexaploid (2n=6x=54), were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C) in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.
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