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Comparative study on the effect of symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates on crude oil remediaton

Author(s): Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE | Harriet Chinyelu NWIGWE | Gideon Chijioke OKPOKWASILI | Moses Onwukwe Edom IWUALA

Journal: Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie
ISSN 1224-5119

Volume: Tom XVIII;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 15;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Bioremediation | crude oil | agricultural soil | crop plants | microorganisms | total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) | Nigeria

Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR) were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata) and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays) and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis). Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg. By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH values obtained from all the samples coated with non-indigenous isolates on comparative to the control samples with TPH of 9,487 mg/kg, 8376 mg/kg, 4517 mg/kg and 3828 mg/kg for V. unguiculata, Z. mays, T. occidentalis and Mucuna pruriens respectively had low TPH values.
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