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THE COMPARISON OF MENTAL TOUGHNESS IN ATHLETE MEN AND WOMEN IN INDIVIDUAL CONTACT AND NON CONTACT SPORTS

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Author(s): Valiollah Kashani | Ahmad Farokhi | Ebraheim Motesharee | Mansoreh Mokaberian

Journal: Electronic Physician
ISSN 2008-5842

Volume: 3;
Issue: 3;
Start page: 321;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Mental Toughness | Contact and non Contact Sports | Women

ABSTRACT
Today; an optimal performance athlete; Result is a combination of different factors. Mentaltoughness as one of the most important psychological characteristics related to outcomes andsuccess in elite sport; so that most coaches and sport psychologists; beliefs mental toughness isthe most important psychological factor affecting the success of athletes. The aim of current studyis The Comparison of Mental toughness in athlete men and women in individual contact and noncontact sports. To determine sample size; first of all; a preliminary study were done with using180 male and female athletes in the three individual contact sports (Wushu; kickboxing;Taekwondo) And three non-contact sports (badminton; squash ;tennis). At the end; According toindividual scores mean and variance; and use formula of determine sample size with p value 95%and with power test 80%; 300 athletes were selected as the study sample. The sport mentaltoughness questioner (SMTQ) was used to measure athletes mental toughness. Tow way ANOVAand Tukey post hoc test based on the significant level of alpha %5 were conducted for analysesData. The results of this research indicated that; Main effect of gender; type of sport (contact andnon-contact) were significant. However; interaction effects of gender and type of Sport; were notsignificant. The results of this research indicated that males scored significantly higher (p < 0.05)than females score in mental toughness; this finding along with Adam R et al (2009) results;These differences could be due to variations in the underlying expression of the attributes relatedto MT in males and females or; alternatively; to different socialization processes. Our resultsrevealed that there were significant differences among athletes who participate in contact or noncontactsports; this finding along with GrayKhan and Jolierowy (2007) results; but not Adam R etal (2009 ) result. Possible causes of superior athletes that participate in contact sports than athleteswho participate in non-contact sports must be searched in nature and philosophy of martial artsbased on physical and psychological stress; In addition; experience violence in contact sports;spiritual person to stand difficult living conditions and exercise more robust returns. Mentaltoughness is having the natural or developed psychological edge that predicts Athletes success.Exposure hard conditions (competition; exercise) can Development MT. Various factors such astime situation; competitive experience; age; activity level; nature of sport and individualdifferences…have important roles In shaping and creating good mental skills; and need toIndependent study.

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