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Comparison of the Outcome of Treatment of Chronic Osteomyelitis by Surgical Debridement with and without Local Antibiotic Delivery System: Experience from a Nigerian Teaching Hospital

Author(s): Ikpeme A. Ikpeme | Enembe O. Oku | Ngim E. Ngim | Iniabasi U. Ilori | Innocent E. Abang

Journal: International Journal of Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2158-284X

Volume: 04;
Issue: 07;
Start page: 313;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Chronic Osteomyelitis | Debridement/Sequestrectomy | Local Antibiotic Systems | Outcomes

Background: Chronic osteomyelitis is still common in the developing world and presents a continuing therapeutic challenge. Antibiotics cannot penetrate the dense fibrotic scar tissue that surrounds infected and avascular bone which perpetuates the infection. Surgical debridement/sequestrectomy is the cornerstone to treatment and aims to create a viable, vascularized base which promotes healing. Surgical debridement necessarily creates a dead space which must be dealt with to prevent re-infection. Local antibiotic delivery systems serve the dual purpose of obliterating dead space and creating a sterile local environment with high bactericidal concentrations. Aim: To determine the outcomes in patients with chronic osteomyelitis who received debridement/sequestrectomy alone, and those who received the procedure combined with a local antibiotic delivery system in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. Patients and Methods: A prospective descriptive analysis of patients managed surgically for chronic osteomyelitis from July 2007 to December, 2012. Patients’ biodata, aetiology, organisms, treatment options and outcomes were analysed. Results: Forty-four patients presented with the condition and accepted surgery. Male:Female ratio was 2.1:1, and mean age was 27.27 ± 17.48 years. The tibia was the most commonly affected bone (45.5%), Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism (56.8% of sinus cultures; 73% of marrow/sequestral cultures) and previous acute haematogenous osteomyelitis was the commonest mechanism. The use of a local antibiotic delivery system improved cure rates from 57.7% to 77.8%). Conclusion: Multiple surgical interventions increase the socioeconomic costs of treating this condition and have a direct impact on the economies of individuals especially in the developing world. Surgical interventions should aim at achieving maximum impact with minimum repetition of the processes. Adequate surgical debridement combined with a local antibiotic delivery system offer improved chances of obtaining cure in this therapeutically challenging disease.
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