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Complexometric determination: Part I - EDTA and complex formation with the Cu2+ ion

Author(s): Rajković Miloš B.

Journal: Hemijska Industrija
ISSN 0367-598X

Volume: 56;
Issue: 7-8;
Start page: 338;
Date: 2002;
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Keywords: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA | chelate effect | complexing agent | conditional formation constant | Cu2+-ion | multidentate ligand

Compounds forming very stable complexes - chelates, have a wide field of application in analytical chemistry. The most famous group of these compounds are complexons. Complexons represent organic polyaminocarbonic acids as for example ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its salts. The EDTA molecule has six coordinative sites. It is a hexadentate ligands i.e. it has two binding nitrogen atoms and four oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups and it forms complexes with almost all metal ions. EDTA as a tetraprotonic acid, H4Y disociates through four steps, yielding the ions HsY-, H2Y2-, HY3- and Y4-. Which of the EDTA forms will be encountered in a solution, depends on the pH. Due to the poor solubility of EDTA in pure water, as well as in most organic solvents, the disodium salt of EDTA Na2H2Y-2H2O, under the commercial name complexon III, is utilized for analytical determinations. In water, EDTA forms soluble, stabile chelate complexes with all cations, at the molar ratio 1:1, regardless of the charge of the metal ion. In contrast to other equilibria, which are mainly defined by Le Chatellier's principle, equilibria related to metal-EDTA complex formation are also dependent on the influence of the secondary equilibria of EDTA complex formation. Complexing reactions, which are equilibrium reactions, are simultaneously influenced by the following factors: solution pH and the presence of complexing agents which may also form a stabile complex with metal ions. The secondary reaction influence may be viewed and monitored through conditional stability constants. In the first part of the paper, the reaction of the formation of the Cu2+-ion complex with EDTA is analyzed beginning from the main reaction through various influences of secondary reactions on the complex Cu2+-EDTA: pH effect, complexation effect and hydrolysis effect. The equations are given for conditional stability constants, which include equilibrium reactions under actual conditions.
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