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COMPOSITION OF THE VOLATILE OIL OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCOE RHIZOMES AND EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL FACTORS ON THE OIL

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Author(s): Husain Shahnaz S. | Ali M. | Ansari Shahid H.

Journal: International Research Journal of Pharmacy
ISSN 2230-8407

Volume: 2;
Issue: 9;
Start page: 173;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Zingiber officinale | Zingiberaceae | rhizomes | volatile oil | chemical composition variation.

ABSTRACT
The chemical composition of the volatile oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes of Delhi region, has been studied under different physical factors. The volatile oil of the fresh rhizomes is composed mainly of β-germacrene-D (25.4 %), linalool (11.8 %), camphene (9.4%), (Z)-β-farnesene (8.4 %), guaia-6,9-diene (8.3 %), limonene oxide (5.9 %), citronellal (3.6 %) and α-guaiene (3.5 %). When the volatile oil was heated at 110° C for 24 hours, β-germacrene-D (19.7 %), linalool (13.4 %), camphene (10.1 %), limonene (8.2 %), guaia-6,9-diene (6.5 %), limonene-1,2-epoxide (4.9 %) and α-guaiene (3.2 %) were the major constituents. Exposure of the volatile oil to sunlight for 48 hours as 15° C showed the presence of β-germacrene-D (21.4 %), linalool (14.5 %), camphene (8.7 %), cis-carveol (6.5 %), neral (5.8 %) and α-guaiene (3.2 %) as the main components. UV light exposure of the volatile oil for 24 hours at 12° C exhibited the occurrence of β-caryophyllene (23 %), linalool (12.9 %), camphene (9 %), valencene (8.2 %), (Z)-β-farnesene (8.1 %) and nerol (6.6 %) as the prominent constituents. The predominant compounds of the silica gel treated oil for 24 hours at 12° C included β-germacrene-D (22 %), linalool (18.4 %), β-selinene (7.5 %), camphene (8.7 %), δ-cadinene (6.8 %), gamma-cadinene (6.8 %), limonene oxide (6.6 %), citronellal (5.4 %) and α-guaiene (3.6 %). Treatment of the volatile oil with alumina neutral for 24 hours at 12° C produced abundantly β-germacrene-D (26.2 %), linalool (14 %), (Z)-β-farnesene (11 %), β-selinene (8.3 %), camphene (6.4 %), tagetonol (5.8 %), borneol (3.9 %) and α-selinene (3.3 %). Camphene (10.1 – 6.4 %) and linalool (14.5 – 11.8 %) were the major components present in all the oil samples.
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