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CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 attenuates colonic damage in mice with experimental colitis

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Author(s): Xian-Ming Xia, Fang-Yu Wang, Wen-An Xu, Zhen-Kai Wang, Jiong Liu, You-Ke Lu, Xin-Xin Jin, Heng Lu, Yun-Zhu Shen

Journal: World Journal of Gastroenterology
ISSN 1007-9327

Volume: 16;
Issue: 23;
Start page: 2873;
Date: 2010;
Original page

Keywords: Ulcerative colitis | Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 receptor | Inflammation | Apoptosis | Intestinal permeability | Epithelial barrier

ABSTRACT
AIM: To investigate the effects of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) receptor (CXCR4) antagonist AMD3100 on colonic inflammation and epithelial barrier in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced by administration of 5% DSS for 7 d, and assays performed on intestinal segments from the ileocecal valve to the anus. Colonic morphology was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Colonic cytokines were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity (indicator of inflammatory infiltration) was observed spectrophotometrically. Gut permeability was assessed by mucosal-to-serosal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran 4000 (FD4) in everted gut sacs. The apoptosis of colonic epithelium was assessed by Hoechst-33342 staining. To further elucidate the role of CXCR4 in colonic inflammation, we also investigated the effect of AMD3100 on migration and cytokine production of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).RESULTS: DSS-induced colitis was characterized by morphologic changes, as well as increased colonic cytokines, inflammatory infiltration, epithelial apoptosis, and intestinal permeability in mice. In AMD3100-treated mice, epithelial destruction, inflammatory infiltration, and submucosal edema were markedly reduced; colonic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels, as well as MPO activity were significantly decreased. Increased intestinal permeability in DSS-treated mice was significantly reduced by AMD3100. The number of apoptotic cells in colitis mice was markedly increased after DSS administration, and decreased when treated with the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. In pre-activated PBMCs, CXCL12 stimulation significantly increased the migration of PBMCs, and was inhibited by AMD3100. Moderately increased TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ from CXCL12-treated PBMCs were also reduced by AMD3100.CONCLUSION: The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 exerts therapeutic effects on experimental colitis by inhibiting colonic inflammation and enhancing epithelial barrier integrity.
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