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CYTOGENETIC TOXICITY EFFECTS OF LOCAL PURSLANE (Portulaca oleracea) LEAF CRUDE EXTRACTS ON NORMAL AND CANCER CELL LINES in Vitro

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Author(s): ZAKARIA A.S. | HAZHA J.H.

Journal: International Journal of Drug Discovery
ISSN 0975-4423

Volume: 5;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 173;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Portulaca oleracea | cytotoxicity | Mitotic index | Vero cel | RD cell and AMN3 cell

ABSTRACT
Aims: The present study was carried out to evaluate the cytogenetic toxicity effects of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of the leaf of Portulaca oleracea L. against two malignant cell lines which were Murine mammary adenocarcinoma (AMN3), human Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and one normal cell line which was kidney epithelium of African green monkey (Vero). Also the study included the antiproliferative effects of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of P. oleracea leaf on the mitotic index (cell division) of Vero, AMN3 and RD cell lines In vitro.Study Design: Cell based assay.Place and Duration: Research center, University Salahaddin, Hawler, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, between 2010-2012.Methodology: After plant sample treatment were observed and have reported through several assays such as trypan blue exlusion assay for cell viability, cytotoxicity assay by crystal violet and mitotic index assay.Result and Conclusion: The aqueous crude extract was found to be more effective antiproliferate agent than the ethanol crude extract. Both extracts exhibited time-dependent cytotoxic effects against AMN3 and RD cancer cell lines. In which AMN3 was more sensitive to the extracts than RD. All concentrations of aqueous extract were affected AMN3 cell line at 72 Hrs. of exposure, but for ethanol extract the last dose (0.01µg/ml) was not effective. While the Vero normal cell line showed resistance toward all concentrations of both extracts except the first dose (10000µg/ml), at all time of exposure (24, 48 and 72) Hrs.Also the antiproliferative effects of aqueous and ethanol crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea leaf were tested for mitotic index for Vero, AMN3 and RD cell lines in vitro after being treated to the extracts at (10000 and 1000) µg/ml for three times of exposure (24, 48 and 72) Hrs. It is revealed that the reduction in mitotic index in both cancer cell lines (AMN3 and RD) were found especially at 72 Hrs. of exposure, in which both crude extracts had the same effects on cell division, and showed time-dependent inhibitory effects. But the reduction of mitotic index in Vero normal cell line has been less noted, especially at 24 and 48 Hrs. of exposure. But at the 72 Hrs. of exposure showed some reduction in cell divisions when compared to the control.
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