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The Demographic Factor of Recreation of the Labour Potential of an Enterprise

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Author(s): M. Khokhlov | Yu. Melnik

Journal: Economics of Development
ISSN 1683-1942

Volume: 54;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 40;
Date: 2010;
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Keywords: labor | employment potential | demographic situation | the structure of employment.

ABSTRACT
The article gives an overview of the current demographic situation in Ukraine, the tendencies of changes in the structure of employment and the impact of these changes on the labour potential of society and an enterprise.The revival of normal steady recreation of labour potential is getting vitally important for the development of the economy of Ukraine and for providing the basis of its economic security. Many research workers have been studying demographic problems at different levels of management of the economy. They are V. Borisov, E. Libanova, A. Sagradov, S. Tyutyunnikova, M. Volgin and many others. However, the problem of the recreation of labour potential at the level of an enterprise with regard to the current demographic processes has not been studied well enough by the present day and is now very urgent. A demographic situation influences directly the economic position of the state, in particular the quality and quantity of the labour force and the labour potential of an enterprise. But it is not the only problem of the social and labour sphere.The ineffective structure of employment with a large share of workers being employed in the agricultural sector of economy still persists. Even now the need for workers with professions which have been of great demand in recent years has reduced. This phenomenon is accompanied by the decline of industrial production as a whole. Thus, the workers of all professions are facing the problem of scarcity of jobs, and in some industries this problem goes hand in hand with the shortage of workers (more often blue collars). The lack of financial resources at enterprises in the times of changing over to the market economy resulted in great loss of highly-skilled personnel of many professions, as many people were redundant and had to change their kind of activity and profession. At the same time the system of specialized technical education broke up: 307.1 thousands of students finished specialized technical educational establishments in 1993, and only 265.1 thousand did it in 2008. Currently we have a certain disbalance in the number of graduates of institutions of different levels of accreditation.The fact that young people are not willing to study in vocational schools and existing skilled workers are getting older and have changed professions in the times of economic decline has resulted in the destructive consequences. At present the rate of training personnel in the system of vocational schools falls behind the demands of labour market: every year domestic vocational schools train about 300 thousand of skilled workers, whereas the number of vacancies announced by employers arrives at almost one and a half million.In addition, vocational schools train workers of 500 professions though in real production there are more than 5 thousand of them. If the situation is not broken, the disbalance in the labour market will become even sharper, and this in the course of time can result in irreversible consequences for the economy of the country.One of the main problems of the Ukrainian labour market is the absence of jobs with high enough payment. It is even more apparent if compared with developed Western countries. At the same time in Ukraine we can see significant disagreement in payment not only in different regions, but also in different kinds of economic activity.Sharpening of negative tendencies in Ukraine and as a result the deterioration of the state of the country’s labour potential and process of its recreation demands for successive and continuous fulfilment of demographic policy, which must be aimed at:1)strengthening of regularity in eliminating of negative demographic tendencies at all levels of management, and with this purpose at the increase of effectiveness of governmental demographic policy;2)the increase of the country’s labour resource potential in the direction of training skilled specialists of scarce professions, of raising prestige of vocational professions at the governmental level;3)raising in salary in the spheres of industry, education, agriculture and so on, state support of educational establishments, that will train the workers of scarce professions.Improvement of the demographic situation in the country, adjustment of the situation at the labour market, development of labour potential will have an immediate impact on the efficiency of work of enterprises and industries, and will result in better economic position of the state.
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