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Describing phenotypic diversity in an outbreak population of Rice Black Bugs from Balangao, Diplahan, Zamboanga Sibugay, Philippines, using principal component analysis and K-means clustering of morphological attributes

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Author(s): Mark A. J. Torres | Grayvimin S. Figueras | Aprille J. M. LuceÑo | Maria L. E. Patiluna | Muhmin M. E. Manting | Rolliebert B. Rampola | Ravindra C. Joshi | Alberto T. Barrion | Leocadio S. Sebastian | Cesar G. Demayo

Journal: Advances in Environmental Sciences
ISSN 2066-7620

Volume: 5;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 15;
Date: 2013;
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Keywords: Rice black bugs | RBB | phenotypic diversity | K-means clustering | principal component analysis | Scotinophara molavica

ABSTRACT
Rice black bugs (RBB) are believed to be a serious pest of rice infesting all growth stages of theplant. Different management approaches have already been applied to control and regulate populations ofthis pest. However, control efforts have been muddled by lack of understanding of the taxonomy of thisinsect resulting from immense intra- and inter-population diversity in phenotypic traits. Here, a total ofthirty traits were scored from an outbreak population consisting of one hundred and twenty female RBBfrom Buug, Zamboanga Sibugay and analyzed using principal component analysis. Plots of the twoprincipal components summarizing 68.8% of the total variation and subsequent K-means clusteringshowed that this population of RBB belong to at least four groups distributed as follows: group 1 – 49individuals; group 2 – 46; group 3 - 14 and group 4 – 11. These individuals are polymorphic for eleventraits only, specifically on the relative lengths of the Tylus and the Jugum, presence of Cicatrices humps,number of antennal segments, shape and reach of the Scutellum, shape of the junction of vein R+M in theouter wing, number of closed marginal cells, number of longitudinal veins below discal cell, and Proboscisreach. The importance of these traits to intra-population divergence and life history of the RBB has yet tobe determined. Thus, further studies should be conducted to determine the genetic and functional basesof the observed diversity. This information is necessary for the proper formulation of managementstrategies for the control and regulation of populations of this insect.
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