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Description of interhemispheric disconnection syndrome in a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease

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Author(s): Daniel Gustavo Politis | Romina Mara Tirigay | Pablo Guillermo Gómez | María Eugenia Tabernero

Journal: World Journal of Neuroscience
ISSN 2162-2000

Volume: 03;
Issue: 03;
Start page: 190;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: Split-Brain | Marchiafava-Bignami Disease | Hemispheric Specialization | Tachioscopic Assessment | Interhemispheric Disconnection Syndrome

ABSTRACT
Interhemispheric disconnection syndrome (IDS), described by Sperry, Gazzaniga and Bogen, is characterized by the presence of visual and tactile anomia, absence of interhemispheric transference of unilateral somatosensory stimulation of both hands, hemialexia and unilateral left-side apraxia. Subsequently, changes were also observed in the sensory interhemispheric transfer and in tests of crossed motor control. In Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) there have been descriptions of partial IDS. The aim is to describe the dissociations in IDS that are presented in a patient with MBD, using a specialized assessment methodology. Patient and Method: A 54-year-old patient, righthanded, with 11 years of schooling, presented with antecedent chronic alcoholism. Neuropsychological tests were administered for general assessment along with specific tests of interhemispheric transference. Results: Borderline changes were found in visual memory, visual-constructive abilities and attention and executive functioning. In tasks of interhemispheric transference the patient showed changes in: the imitation of hand poses; inter-manual pressure point localization (tactile stimulation); reading aloud of words by visual hemifield; and movement control. Conclusion: Our patient showed a wide lesion of the Corpus Callosum (CC) with relative preservation of the splenium, accompanied by partial disconnection syndrome in the context of a global cognitive deterioration from his chronic alcoholism.
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