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Design of a trial evaluating myocardial cell protection with cariporide, an inhibitor of the transmembrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger: the Guard During Ischemia Against Necrosis (GUARDIAN) trial

Author(s): Theroux Pierre | Chaitman Bernard | Erhardt Leif | Jessel Andreas | Meinertz Thomas | Nickel Wolf-Ulrich | Schroeder John | Tognoni Gianni | White Harvey | Willerson James

Journal: Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine
ISSN 1468-6708

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 59;
Date: 2000;
Original page

Keywords: cariporide | coronary angioplasty | coronary artery bypass graft surgery | myocardial cell protection | sodium/hydrogen exchanger

Synopsis Background Direct myocardial cell protection in patients with unstable angina or evolving myocardial infarction (MI) could prevent cell necrosis or reduce its extent, and minimize the risk of MI and death associated with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and coronary artery bypass surgery. The myocardial NHE plays a critical role in mediating the progression of ischemia to necrosis by promoting intracellular accumulation of sodium and calcium in exchange for hydrogen. Blockage of the system in various experimental models of ischemia and reperfusion had a strong antinecrotic effect. The present paper describes a trial that was intended to investigate the potential clinical benefit of cariporide, a potent and selective inhibitor of the NHE, in a large spectrum of at-risk patients. Trial design The GUARDIAN trial was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, four-arm trial that compared three cariporide dosages with placebo in patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI) and in patients undergoing a high-risk PCI or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 11 590 patients with one of the three possible entry diagnoses were enroled in 23 countries. The trial was designed as a combined phase 2/phase 3 study. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of cariporide in reducing all-cause mortality and/or MI across the various entry populations 36 days after randomization. Three different doses of cariporide were compared with placebo. Secondary end-points were death or non-fatal MI at 10 days and 6 months, and cardiac events related to left ventricular dysfunction. The extent of MI was also assessed by peak elevation in creatinine kinase (CK)-MB and a ratio of peak elevation to normal values. The sample size was driven by a total event rate of 1200 patients experiencing a primary end-point, powered to detect a 25% risk reduction in any of the three treatment groups compared with placebo at a significance level of 0.02, accounting for the three pair wise comparisons.
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