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Detection of Hepatitis B virus subgenotype A1 in a Quilombo community from Maranhão, Brazil

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Author(s): Alvarado-Mora Mónica | Botelho Livia | Gomes-Gouvêa Michele | de Souza Vanda | Nascimento Maria | Pannuti Claudio | Carrilho Flair | Pinho João

Journal: Virology Journal
ISSN 1743-422X

Volume: 8;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 415;
Date: 2011;
Original page

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus | Genotype A1 | Quilombo community | Maranhão state | Brazil | Bayesian Analysis

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background The Brazilian population is mainly descendant from European colonizers, Africans and Native Americans. Some Afro-descendants lived in small isolated communities since the slavery period. The epidemiological status of HBV infection in Quilombos communities from northeast of Brazil remains unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the HBV genotypes circulating inside a Quilombo isolated community from Maranhão State, Brazil. Methods Seventy-two samples from Frechal Quilombo community at Maranhão were collected. All serum samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBsAg positive samples were submitted to DNA extraction and a fragment of 1306 bp partially comprising HBsAg and polymerase coding regions (S/POL) was amplified by nested PCR and its nucleotide sequence was determined. Viral isolates were genotyped by phylogenetic analysis using reference sequences from each genotype obtained from GenBank (n = 320). Sequences were aligned using Muscle software and edited in the SE-AL software. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to obtain the MCC tree using BEAST v.1.5.3. Results Of the 72 individuals, 9 (12.5%) were HBsAg-positive and 4 of them were successfully sequenced for the 1306 bp fragment. All these samples were genotype A1 and grouped together with other sequences reported from Brazil. Conclusions The present study represents the first report on the HBV genotypes characterization of this community in the Maranhão state in Brazil where a high HBsAg frequency was found. In this study, we reported a high frequency of HBV infection and the exclusive presence of subgenotype A1 in an Afro-descendent community in the Maranhão State, Brazil.
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