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Developmental Effects of Malathion Exposure on Recognition Memory and Spatial Learning in Males Wistar Rats

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Author(s): Pacôme Kouadio N’Go | Fatima-Zahra Azzaoui | Porlo Rigobert Soro | Majda Samih | Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami | Mohamed Najimi | Fatiha Chigr

Journal: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science
ISSN 2160-5866

Volume: 03;
Issue: 03;
Start page: 331;
Date: 2013;
Original page

Keywords: AChE | Developmental Neurotoxicity | Malathion | Organophosphate Pesticide Recognition Memory | Spatial Learning

ABSTRACT
Most cognitive effects of Organophosphate Pesticides (OP) are induced after exposure to parathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon, which the usage has been restricted because of overt signs of their toxicities. In this study, we investigate whether developmental exposure to Malathion could impair spatial learning and recognition memory in male rats. Animals exposed by intragastric route, from in utero to young adult stage, to incremental doses of Malathion dissolved in corn oil; 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight, and one control group are given corn oil. Then, cognitive and behaveioral abilities are assessed using Barnes maze and object recognition memory task. Malathion administration at 300 mg/kg is toxic to pregnant dams, and pups are stillborns. Rats exposed to 200 mg/kg make a significant working memory error, and require more time to find an escape box during the initial training phase of Barnes maze. However, fewer errors are made in rats exposed to 100 mg/kg. For reversal learning task, the high dose group shows great deficits in spatial strategy to locate the new position of the box. With respect to recognition task, both dose 100 and 200 mg/kg impair significant short-term (2 h after habituation phase) object recognition memory, but long-term (24 h after habituation phase) recognition memory is intact in high dose group. The current study also reveals that all treatments induce high significant neocortex acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity inhibition, but 100 mg/kg dose is not sufficient to disrupt great hippocampal activity alteration. These results suggest that developmental exposure to Malathion, despite low toxicity described, may induce late-emerging spatial learning and recognition memorialterations. Moreover, Cortical and hippocampal area that support strongly these behaviors remain sensitive to incremental doses of Malathion.  
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