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Diagnostic Approaches to Sjögren’s Syndrome: a Literature Review and Own Clinical Experience

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Author(s): Pedro de Sousa Gomes | Gintaras Juodzbalys | Maria Helena Fernandes | Zygimantas Guobis

Journal: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
ISSN 2029-283X

Volume: 3;
Issue: 1;
Start page: e3;
Date: 2012;
Original page

Keywords: Sjogren's syndrome | oral pathology | salivary glands | xerostomia | xerophthalmia | salivary glands | minor | diagnosis.

ABSTRACT
Objectives: The purpose of present paper is to critically address the recent advances on diagnostic procedures of Sjögren’s syndrome, taking into account the attained local and systemic features of the disease. Material and Methods: A comprehensive review of the available literature regarding to the diagnostic approaches to Sjögren’s syndrome was conducted. Eligible studies were identified by searching the electronic literature PubMed, Medline, Embase, and ScienceDirect databases for relevant reports (last search update January 2012) combining the MESH heading term “Sjögren’s syndrome”, with the words "diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, salivary gland function, ocular tests, histopathology, salivary gland imaging, serology". The authors checked the references of the selected articles to identify additional eligible publications and contacted the authors, if necessary. Results: Presented article addresses the established diagnostic criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome and critically evaluates the most commonly used diagnostic procedures, presenting data from author’s own clinical experience. Diagnostic criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome are required both by healthcare professionals and patients, namely in order to provide a rational basis for the assessment of the symptoms, establish an individual disease prognosis, and orientate the therapeutic intervention. Conclusions: Sjögren’s syndrome is quite a common autoimmune disease of which the diagnosis and treatment are not easily established. Due to its systemic involvement, it can exhibit a wide range of clinical manifestations that contribute to confusion and delay in diagnosis. The use of proper diagnostic modalities will help to reduce the time to diagnosis and preserve the health and quality of life of patients with Sjögren’s syndrome.
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