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Differentiation and fiber type-specific activity of a muscle creatine kinase intronic enhancer

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Author(s): Tai Phillip WL | Fisher-Aylor Katherine I | Himeda Charis L | Smith Catherine L | MacKenzie Alexandra P | Helterline Deri L | Angello John C | Welikson Robert E | Wold Barbara J | Hauschka Stephen D

Journal: Skeletal Muscle
ISSN 2044-5040

Volume: 1;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 25;
Date: 2011;
Original page

ABSTRACT
Abstract Background Hundreds of genes, including muscle creatine kinase (MCK), are differentially expressed in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers, but the fiber type-specific regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. Results Modulatory region 1 (MR1) is a 1-kb regulatory region within MCK intron 1 that is highly active in terminally differentiating skeletal myocytes in vitro. A MCK small intronic enhancer (MCK-SIE) containing a paired E-box/myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) regulatory motif resides within MR1. The SIE's transcriptional activity equals that of the extensively characterized 206-bp MCK 5'-enhancer, but the MCK-SIE is flanked by regions that can repress its activity via the individual and combined effects of about 15 different but highly conserved 9- to 24-bp sequences. ChIP and ChIP-Seq analyses indicate that the SIE and the MCK 5'-enhancer are occupied by MyoD, myogenin and MEF2. Many other E-boxes located within or immediately adjacent to intron 1 are not occupied by MyoD or myogenin. Transgenic analysis of a 6.5-kb MCK genomic fragment containing the 5'-enhancer and proximal promoter plus the 3.2-kb intron 1, with and without MR1, indicates that MR1 is critical for MCK expression in slow- and intermediate-twitch muscle fibers (types I and IIa, respectively), but is not required for expression in fast-twitch muscle fibers (types IIb and IId). Conclusions In this study, we discovered that MR1 is critical for MCK expression in slow- and intermediate-twitch muscle fibers and that MR1's positive transcriptional activity depends on a paired E-box MEF2 site motif within a SIE. This is the first study to delineate the DNA controls for MCK expression in different skeletal muscle fiber types.
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