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Digital Tampering Detection Techniques: A Review

Author(s): Kusam | Pawanesh Abrol | Devanand

Journal: BVICAM's International Journal of Information Technology
ISSN 0973-5658

Volume: 1;
Issue: 2;
Date: 2009;

Keywords: Digital Image | Digital Forgery | Digital Tampering.

In this era of digital computing, the interest and necessity ofrepresenting information in visual forms has become veryimportant. Due to considerable improvement in computingand network technologies, and the availability of betterbandwidths, the past few years have seen a considerable risein the accessibility, sophistication, and transmission ofdigital images using imaging technologies like digitalcameras, scanners, photo-editing, and software-packages.However, this technology is also being used formanipulating digital images and creating forgeries that aredifficult to distinguish from authentic photographs.Tampering of images involves pasting one part of an imageonto another one, skillfully manipulated to avoid anysuspicion. Any image manipulation can become a forgery,based upon the context in which it is used. The sophisticatedand low-cost tools of the digital age enable the creation andmanipulation of digital images without leaving anyperceptible traces. As a result, the authenticity of imagescan’t be taken for granted, especially when it comes to legalphotographic evidence. Manipulations on an imageencompass processing operations such as scaling, rotation,brightness adjustment, blurring, contrast enhancement, etc.or any cascade combinations of them. Thus the problem ofestablishing image authenticity has become more complexwith easy availability of digital images and freedownloadable image editing softwares leading todiminishing trust in digital photographs.Detecting forgery inthe digital images is one of the challenges of this excitingdigital age. A lot of research is underway to detect andprevent forgery in digital images. One of the problems inweb based image applications is non-availability of originalimage for evaluation. Further, digital imageryauthentication techniques based on cryptographic principlesand digital signatures offer no modification protectionfollowing image transmission. In this paper, we study themajor approaches to detect forgery in digital images.Initially, the process of digital image tampering is explained.Subsequently, we analyze some of recent algorithms fordetecting digital forgery including copy-move, chromaticaberration, PCA for detecting duplicated image, lightinginconsistencies. Preliminary investigations show thatdifferent algorithms have different domains of tamperingdetection and have different merits and demerits. Thedecision about the content authenticity is complex and canbe better established by interpreting the results obtained byapplying a set of these methods.
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