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Dilated cardiomiopathy associated with celiac disease: Case report and literature review

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Author(s): Milisavljević Nemanja | Cvetković Mirjana | Nikolić Goran | Filipović Branka | Milinić Nikola

Journal: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
ISSN 0370-8179

Volume: 140;
Issue: 9-10;
Start page: 641;
Date: 2012;
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Keywords: celiac disease | dilated cardiomyopathy | gluten-free diet

ABSTRACT
Introduction. Celiac disease is an inflammatory condition of the small intestinal mucosa induced by gluten consumption in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to a spectrum of gastrointestinal presentation. A number of autoimmune and other disorders are highly associated with celiac disease. Cardiomyopathy associated with celiac disease has been rarely reported in the literature. Case Outline. We present a case of a 27-year-old male with one month history of diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue, dyspeptic symptoms, peripheral edema, and cardiac palpitations. After positive serological screening with immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody test, the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed with histopathology examination of duodenal biopsy specimen. Echocardiographic findings were consistent with acute myocarditis. After common causes of myocarditis had been excluded, probable celiac disease-associated autoimmune myocarditis was diagnosed. The patient was recommended to undergo a strict life-long gluten-free diet. IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies, and anti-gliadin antibodies, were both significantly elevated during the 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up. Low compliance to gluten-free diet in our patient led to progressive worsening of the left ventricular ejective fraction and other serious cardiac complications which warranted invasive cardiac interventions. Conclusion. Dilated cardiomyopathy associated with celiac disease is a serious condition which requires multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologist and cardiologist. Compliance with gluten-free diet is mandatory if patients are to avoid progression of cardiomyopathy. Screening of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy for celiac disease is advisable.
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