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Disease and health conditions affecting camel production in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities of northern Tanzania

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Author(s): E. S. Swai, | W. Moshy, | E. Mbise, | J. Lutatina | S. Bwanga

Journal: Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences
ISSN 2221-1896

Volume: 1;
Issue: 2;
Start page: 83;
Date: 2011;
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Keywords: Camel | Diseases | Husbandry Practices | Risk Factors | Tanzania

ABSTRACT
A cross-sectional field survey was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity and udder health in camel from 8 geographical localities of northern Tanzania during the period of June to August 2010. The study populations comprised 193 camels of all age and sexes, selected from 14 traditional managed herds. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Mastitis was investigated based on microbiology and California mastitis test (CMT), while brucellosis was evaluated serologically for antibodies against Brucella infection using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT). The crude prevalence of antibodies to Brucella was 2.1% for individual camels and 21.4% for herds. Of the 128 udder quarters and 128 teats investigated, proportion found to have physical lesion or defects were 0.8% for teats and 4.7% for udder quarters, respectively. The common observed teats lesion was scar and for quarters was firmness upon touch. Of the 32 lactating camels examined, 12.5% had abnormalities in their udder as evidence of mastitis with 3.1% and 9.3% being clinical and sub-clinical mastitis respectively; at camel level. Of the 128 quarters examined 9(7.03%) were infected: 4(3.1%) clinically and 5(3.9%) sub-clinically. E. coli was the major isolate from camel milk samples. The mean (±SE) calving interval of the 17 camels that were reported to have calved more than once in their life time was estimated to be 789 ± 14 days. Results of univariable logistic regression models identified body condition score and geographical location to be the major risk factors for individual herd seroprevalence. Poor condition score (16.6%; P
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