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Early goal-directed therapy in moderate to high-risk cardiac surgery patients

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Author(s): Kapoor Poonam | Kakani Madhava | Chowdhury Ujjwal | Choudhury Minati | Lakshmy R | Kiran Usha

Journal: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
ISSN 0971-9784

Volume: 11;
Issue: 1;
Start page: 27;
Date: 2008;
Original page

Keywords: Cardiac surgery | early goal-directed therapy | haemodynamic monitoring | outcome measures | perioperative

ABSTRACT
Early goal-directed therapy is a term used to describe the guidance of intravenous fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by using cardiac output or similar parameters in the immediate post-cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery patients. Early recognition and therapy during this period may result in better outcome. In keeping with this aim in the cardiac surgery patients, we conducted the present study. The study included 30 patients of both sexes, with EuroSCORE ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into two groups, namely, control and early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) groups. All the subjects received standardized care; arterial pressure was monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour and frequent arterial blood gas analysis. In addition, cardiac index monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation using PreSep™ was used in patients in the EGTD group. Our aim was to maintain the cardiac index at 2.5-4.2 l/min/m 2 , stroke volume index 30-65 ml/beat/m 2 , systemic vascular resistance index 1500-2500 dynes/s/cm 5 /m 2 , oxygen delivery index 450-600 ml/min/m 2 , continuous central venous oximetry more than 70%, stroke volume variation less than 10%; in addition to the control group parameters such as central venous pressure 6-8 mmHg, mean arterial pressure 90-105 mmHg, normal arterial blood gas analysis values, pulse oximetry, hematocrit value above 30% and urine output more than 1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of intravenous fluids and doses of inotropic or vasodilator agents. Three patients were excluded from the study and the data of 27 patients analyzed. The extra volume used (330 ± 160 v/s 80 ± 80 ml, P = 0.043) number of adjustments of inotropic agents (3.4 ± 1.5 v/s 0.4 ± 0.7, P = 0.026) in the EGDT group were significant. The average duration of ventilation (13.8 ± 3.2 v/s 20.7 ± 7.1 h), days of use of inotropic agents (1.6 ± 0.9 v/s 3.8 ± 1.6 d), ICU stay (2.6 ± 0.9 v/s 4.9 ± 1.8 d) and hospital stay (5.6 ± 1.2 v/s 8.9 ± 2.1 d) were less in the EGDT group, compared to those in the control group. This study is inconclusive with regard to the beneficial aspects of the early goal-directed therapy in cardiac surgery patients, although a few benefits were observed.

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